The Modified Resisted Internal Rotation Test for Detection of Gluteal Tendon Tears
Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) has received increasing attention in recent years. Most patients with GTPS present with trochanteric bursitis and respond to nonoperative treatment. However, a subset of patients may have persistent lateral hip pain or recalcitrant GTPS resulting from an undiagnosed gluteal tendon tear. Recalcitrant GTPS may be a debilitating condition in this patient subset. There is a need for an accurate and evidence-based physical examination maneuver to aid in earlier diagnosis of gluteal tendon tears and timely intervention in these patients. Most studies evaluating gluteal tendinopathy fail to assess surgical indications and instead focus on identifying trochanteric bursitis, which may or may not require surgical treatment. The modified resisted internal rotation test has been used in our practice to detect gluteus medius tendon tears in the recalcitrant GTPS patient population. Fundamental anatomic, biomechanical, electromyographic, and clinical data have been reviewed to make this an evidence-based clinical test for early detection of this pathology.