5-Year Arthroscopy-Free Survivorship and Outcomes of Adolescents Undergoing Primary Hip Arthroscopy: A Comparison Between Traumatic and Atraumatic Injuries
Background: There is a paucity of literature evaluating the outcomes of adolescent patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) with a discrete traumatic event related to an injury.
Purpose: (1) To evaluate 5-year outcomes of adolescents undergoing hip arthroscopy for FAIS with traumatic injuries (TIs) and (2) to compare the traumatic group with a propensity-matched control group of patients with atraumatic injuries.
Methods: Data were reviewed for all adolescent patients (<18 years) undergoing primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS with a TI between November 2008 and March 2015. Patients were included if they had preoperative and minimum 5-year follow-up outcomes for the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Nonarthritic Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Sport Specific Subscale, and visual analog scale for pain. The Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS), minimum clinically important difference (MCID), and maximum outcome improvement satisfaction threshold (MOIT) were also calculated for both groups. Adolescents with TI were propensity matched in a 1:2 ratio according to age at surgery, sex, and body mass index (BMI) to a control group of adolescents who reported atraumatic hip symptoms (AHSs). Survivorship was defined as having no secondary surgery on the ipsilateral hip.
Results: A total of 31 patients (32 hips) with TI, out of 39 total patients (40 hips) (80%), were included with a mean follow-up time of 72.2 ± 24.1 months and age of 15.8 ± 1.3 years. The TI group demonstrated significant improvement in all patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (P < .001) and demonstrated high rates of MCID (78.3%) and PASS (91.3%) for the mHHS. When compared with a propensity-matched control group of 64 AHS hips (57 patients), the TI group demonstrated similar rates of improvement in all PROs, as well as rates of achieving the MCID, PASS, and MOIT for all PROs; however, the TI group demonstrated significantly higher revision rates compared with controls (28.1% vs 6.3%; P = .008).
Conclusion: Adolescent patients with TIs undergoing hip arthroscopy demonstrated favorable outcomes for all PROs (P < .001) and achieved high rates of MCID (78.3%) and PASS (91.3%) for the mHHS. When compared with a propensity-matched control group of adolescents with atraumatic injuries undergoing hip arthroscopy, they achieved similar levels of improvement, postoperative scores, and clinical benefit thresholds; however, reoperation rates were higher in the TI group compared with controls.