Arthroscopic Capsular Plication and Labral Seal Restoration in Borderline Hip Dysplasia: 2-Year Clinical Outcomes in 55 Cases
Purpose: To report clinical outcomes in patients with borderline dysplasia undergoing an arthroscopic technique of labral seal restoration with minimal acetabular rim resection and capsular plication.
Methods: Patients younger than 40 years with a lateral center-edge angle of 18° greater and 25° or less and 2-year follow-up after undergoing an arthroscopic technique of labral seal restoration with minimal rim resection (≤2 mm) and capsular plication (3-5 sutures placed in an oblique orientation to create an imbrication and inferior shift) were included. Patients underwent arthroscopy for symptoms that had marginal improvement with a minimum 6-week structured physical therapy program. Patients with a Tönnis grade of 1 or greater, a center-edge angle of 17° or less, and Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease were excluded. The following patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were recorded prospectively but retrospectively reviewed: modified Harris Hip Score, Non-Arthritic Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Sports-Specific Subscale, and Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living. The visual analog scale score, patient satisfaction score, complications, and revision procedures were also recorded. A 2-tailed paired t test was used to analyze change in preoperative to postoperative PRO scores. Significance was defined as P < .05.
Results: During the study period, 232 hip arthroscopies were performed in patients with a lateral center-edge angle between 18° and 25°. The inclusion criteria were met by 59 procedures. Of these procedures, 55 (93.2%) were available for follow-up. The labrum was repaired, debrided, and reconstructed in 37 procedures, 17 procedures, and 1 procedure, respectively. The iliopsoas was released in 34 procedures, the ligamentum teres was debrided in 29, and femoral osteoplasty was performed in 32. At 2-year follow-up, there was significant improvement in the mean scores of all PROs compared with baseline. Mean improvements for the modified Harris Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living, Hip Outcome Score-Sports-Specific Subscale, and Non-Arthritic Hip Score were 20.7, 17.5, 27.6, and 20.0, respectively. There was significant improvement in the visual analog scale score at 2 years, decreasing by 3.16 compared with baseline, and the mean patient satisfaction score was 8.09, with 83.6% of patients achieving a good to excellent result (patient satisfaction score ≥7). No complications were related to the procedure, and 6 patients (11%) required revision procedures (4 for labral retear, 1 for painful iliopsoas internal snapping, and 1 for removal of a symptomatic loose body).
Conclusions: Arthroscopic intervention that encompasses minimal rim resection, restoration of labral function, and capsular plication significantly improves outcomes in patients with borderline dysplasia who do not warrant a periacetabular osteotomy.