Hip dysplasia is a congenital condition in which the acetabulum or socket is shallow. This creates under-coverage of the femoral head. The weight-bearing portion of the hip becomes overloaded as it is increasingly focused on a small area.
Dysplasia can lead to hip instability, labral damage and early-onset arthritis.
Patients with untreated dysplasia may be at an increased risk for needing a hip replacement early in life.
Mild dysplasia can often be addressed arthroscopically by repairing a torn labrum and tightening the capsule around the joint.
Severe dysplasia can be treated with correction of the mechanical and boney deformity through a procedure called a peri-acetabular osteotomy (PAO). American Hip Institute Research Foundation® has created a team approach to severe dysplasia with combined arthroscopy to repair torn labrum arthroscopically and a PAO, to correct the boney mechanical deformity in the same operation. This is aimed at treating both the bony deformity and the source of pain.
Dysplasia is a developmental condition and may be caused by:
-Injury or insult in utero or during early childhood
-Infection during in utero or during early child hood
-Position in the uterus
Risk Factors for hip dysplasia include:
-Large birth weight
-Family history of developmental dysplasia of the hip
Symptoms of hip dysplasia
-Constant, achy pain
-Intermittent catching or locking
Physical Exam Findings
-Difficulty standing on one leg
-Limb length discrepancy
-Pain with range of motion
Imaging Studies to diagnose the severity of dysplasia and intra-articular damage
-X-rays: assess bony abnormality
-MRI: assess cartilage damage and injury to the joint
Treatment: Depending on the degree of congenital deformity, Dysplasia can be treated with hip arthroscopy alone or combined hip arthroscopy and periacetabular osteotomy.